Sacroiliitis is an inflammation of the sacroiliac joint. It can include both joints or just one. These joints are found at the lower part of your spine where it connects to your pelvic area, near the hips. The pain of sacroiliitis can affect the:
3)legs (one or both)
4)hips (one or both)
There are several potential causes of inflammation in the sacroiliac joints. These include:
Ankylosing spondylitis: This is a progressive type of inflammatory arthritis that affects the spine and hips. Sacroiliitis is often an early sign of this condition. Not all people who experience sacroiliitis have ankylosing spondylitis.
Trauma: A sudden traumatic injury may damage the sacroiliac joints and cause inflammation, leading to degenerative sacroiliitis.
Pregnancy: During pregnancy, the sacroiliac joints stretch to make room for the growing baby. This may put stress on the joints and cause sacroiliitis.
Infection: If the sacroiliac joint becomes infected, it becomes inflamed and prone to damage.
Sacroiliitis may be hard to diagnose as it can be mistaken for lower back pain caused by different conditions. As a result, a doctor may diagnose sacroiliitis through the exclusion of other conditions.
A doctor may perform several physical tests to assess if sacroiliitis is causing a person’s pain. These can include applying pressure to the sacroiliac joints and making the patient move their hip joint through various ranges of motion.
A doctor may conduct MRI tests as a diagnostic tool for sacroiliitis. However, the authors commented that without significant exp the chance of a false-positive diagnosis from MRI imaging is relatively high.
Computed tomography may sometimes be useful in diagnosing sacroiliitis.
Some physical tests are as follows
1) Gaenslen test
2) sacral thrust test
3) distraction test
4) faber's test
5) yeoman's test
6) sacroilliac compression test
The following medications can help to treat sacroiliitis:
Pain relievers: Over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications may provide some relief. A doctor may prescribe stronger medicines if OTC options are not helping
Muscle relaxants: Sacroiliitis can cause muscle spasms that may be painful. Muscle relaxants can help relieve these.
TNF inhibitors: This type of medication can help ease sacroiliitis if it is associated with ankylosing spondylitis. A 2016 study showed that TNF inhibitors could significantly improve both activity and joint function
Surgery and other procedures
In severe cases where medication and exercise do not relieve sacroiliitis, a doctor may recommend one of the following surgeries or procedures:
Electrical stimulation: A medical professional may implant an electrical stimulator into the sacrum, which may help to reduce the pain.
Joint injections: Injected corticosteroids into the sacroiliac joint can help to reduce inflammation and pain. However, having too many injections in too short a time frame may cause other problems. As a result, doctors will limit the amountTrusted Source a patient can receive.
Radiofrequency denervation: This type of treatment works on the nerve tissue that may be causing sacroiliac pain.
Joint fusion: In severe cases, fusing the two bones with a metal plate or other fusion devices may help relieve sacroiliitis.
Physical Therapy Management
The aim of the first stage of treatment is to reduce the inflammation with icepacks and anti-inflammatory medication. The second goal is to improve mobility using mobilizations, manipulation or exercise therapy. If there are complaints of instability, it can be useful to make use of a sacroiliac belt to temporarily support the pelvis, together with progressive stabilization training to increase motor control and stability. If the sacroiliac joint is severely inflamed, a sacroiliac belt can also be used. Postural and ergonomic advice will help the patient to decrease the risk of reinjury.
Exercises for sactoilitis are
Hip adductor stretch
Lower trunk rotation
Knee to chest stretch one and both
Back bridge stretch
Isometric hip adductor stretch
Functional training Once your pain, strength, and motion improve, you will need to safely transition back to your full sport and/or daily activity levels. To reduce the stress and tension on the sacroiliac joint, you will need to learn safe, controlled movements. This training also will reduce your risk of repeated injury. Your physical therapist will teach you how to use and move your body correctly based on your unique physical condition.