Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a rare condition characterized by paralysis of voluntary muscles, except for eye movement. Arunalaya Advanced Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation in Patel Nagar, Delhi, provides extensive physiotherapy for LIS patients. Learn about the causes, diagnosis, and physiotherapy management of locked-in syndrome in this blog.
Introduction:Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a medical condition characterized by near-complete paralysis of voluntary muscles, while consciousness and awareness remain intact. Arunalaya Advanced Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation in Patel Nagar, Delhi, offers comprehensive physiotherapy for patients with locked-in syndrome. In this blog, we will delve into the causes, diagnosis, and physiotherapy management of locked-in syndrome.
Causes and Categories of Locked-In Syndrome:Locked-in syndrome is most commonly caused by a brainstem stroke resulting from a blockage or bleeding in the blood vessels supplying the brainstem. Other causes include traumatic brain injury, brainstem tumors, and certain neurological disorders. LIS can be categorized into three subcategories: classic, incomplete, and total, based on the extent of motor and verbal impairment.
Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis:Individuals with locked-in syndrome retain eye-opening and basic cognitive abilities, but experience severe hypophonia or aphonia and quadriparesis or quadriplegia. Communication is often possible through vertical or lateral eye movement and blinking. Diagnosis is typically made by assessing abnormal horizontal eye movement, absence of eye abduction, and the presence of a brainstem lesion confirmed through MRI.
Physiotherapy Management:Physiotherapy plays a crucial role in managing locked-in syndrome, starting as early as possible after diagnosis. Physiotherapy interventions are designed to maintain airway, prevent complications from immobility, and improve cardiorespiratory function. Ongoing physiotherapy focuses on limb mobilization, cardiorespiratory care, treating abnormal tone and spasticity, repetitive sensorimotor training, increasing endurance and attention span, task-oriented training, muscle strengthening, and enhancing head and trunk control.
Physiotherapy: Early Stages:In the early stages, physiotherapy aims to maintain airway and adequate oxygenation. Positioning techniques help prevent complications from immobility, such as contractures and bedsores. Passive limb mobilization prevents contractures and reduces spasticity. Cardiorespiratory physiotherapy includes postural drainage, suctioning, chest mobilizations, and deep breathing exercises.
Physiotherapy: Ongoing:Ongoing physiotherapy focuses on continuing limb mobilization and cardiorespiratory care. Abnormal tone and spasticity are treated through targeted interventions. Repetitive sensorimotor training improves motor function, while increasing endurance and attention span. Task-oriented training helps establish functional motor patterns, and muscle strengthening enhances overall function. Head and trunk control training is essential for active sitting and communication.
Conclusion:Locked-in syndrome is a rare condition characterized by severe paralysis, except for eye movement, with preserved consciousness. Arunalaya Advanced Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation in Patel Nagar, Delhi, provides comprehensive physiotherapy management for locked-in syndrome patients. Early and ongoing physiotherapy interventions are essential in maintaining function, improving motor control, and enhancing the quality of life for individuals with locked-in syndrome. Contact us for personalized care and effective physiotherapy techniques tailored to your needs.