Wallenberg Syndrome, also known as lateral medullary syndrome or posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) syndrome, is a neurological condition that occurs when there is damage to the lateral medulla oblongata, which is a part of the brainstem. The lateral medulla contains several important structures, including the cerebellum, the vestibular nuclei, and the nuclei of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.
Wallenberg Syndrome is caused by a blockage or rupture of the PICA, which is one of the main arteries that supplies blood to the lateral medulla. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including a blood clot or atherosclerosis (narrowing of the artery due to a buildup of plaque).
The symptoms of Wallenberg Syndrome vary depending on the location and extent of the damage, but may include:
Treatment for Wallenberg Syndrome is aimed at managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include medications to control nausea, vomiting, and pain, as well as physical therapy to help patients regain strength and mobility. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat underlying conditions such as a blood clot or aneurysm. Rehabilitation is also an important part of treatment to help patients regain function and improve quality of life.